Racism in the Netherlands

On December 2016, Anne Frank Foundation in Amsterdam published its annual report about extreme right-wing violence events with racism, Muslim discrimination, anti-Semitism and extreme right-wing organization. The report that the Anne Frank Foundation is preparing for fifth; it says that discrimination against Muslims has increased in recent years.

 

Summary Table: Antisemitism, Racism, and Muslim Discrimination 

In the Netherlands from 2012-2015, the number of cases of racism recorded by the police in the following table (table 1) is given. In 2012 while passing 2077 racist events records, this number increased to 2732 in 2015. The number of discriminatory events targeting Muslims it has tripled in 2015 compared to 2014.

 

Table 1: Racism in the Netherlands between 2012 and 2015

2012 2013 2014 2015
Intentional Anti-semitism 58 61 76 57
Antisemitic Movements 931 872 710 424
Racism

  • Discrimination against Muslims
2077 2189

35

2764

142

2732

466

Racist movements

  • Movements against Muslims
1352 1346

115

825

88

842

222

Total number of racist case 4274 4283 4092 4165

 

Racism

– In 2015,  2732 (including discrimination against Muslim) racist cases were recorded.

– According to police records, 21 percent of cases in 2015 are violence, 14 percent are based on discrimination, and 13 percent are based on threats.

– “Racist action” cases in police records it dropped from 1440 to 842 between the years 2010-2015.

– The table 2 below shows the cases of racism separated by regions.

 

Table 2: According to the regions where the police are responsible, racist incidents.

Regions where the police is responsible 2012 2013 2014 2015
North Netherlands Region 160 199 207 273
Eastern Netherlands Region 290 296 399 397
Central Netherlands Region 253 250 336 303
North Netherlands Region 144 150 192 197
Amsterdam 283 320 347 298
Lahey 257 296 398 397
Rotterdam 242 256 348 304
Zeeland State-West Brabant Region 165 147 215 235
Eastern Brabant Region 128 141 206 189
Limburg State 106 116 116 137
National Police unit 49 18 2
Total 2077 2189 2764 2732

 

Complaint Lines Working on Racism

– The report took into account complaints that reached anti-discrimination services (Hol.” ADV”). In 2015, 1965 racism was reported to ADV. (This number does not include discrimination against Muslim because ADV is recording these complaints separately)

– The report also takes into account the data prepared by MIND and MIND, which record racism on the internet. Reaching these institutions complaints; while 753 in 2014, in 2015, it rose to 861.

– Most of the complaints about the racist messages on Facebook social sharing site. In parallel with the debate on the refugee crisis in the Netherlands in 2015, complaints about racist rhetoric on the internet have increased.

 

Vivian Malone registering classes
The iconic photograph of anti-racism: Vivian Malone entering the University of Alabama in the U.S. to register for classes

Muslim Discrimination

About 17 percent of 2015 racist incidents (466) were against Muslims. This rate was approximately 5 percent in 2014, while 2013 was about 2.

The number of cases of discrimination against Muslims. According to police records 35 in 2013, 142 in 2014 and 466 in 2015. According to these data in 2015 compared to a year earlier discrimination against Muslims has tripled. The probable cause of this increase in 2015 (January and November) the growing influx of refugees with social tensions and terrorist attacks in Europe.

According to the police record of events related to Muslims: 20 percent of discrimination, 16 percent of threatened and 14 percent is made up of violence. (Other events: goods to / etc insulting and damaging the buildings.

When looking at the distribution of the events on the Muslim, The Netherlands is an increase in the general and this increase is observed in all of the Netherlands. The following table (Table 3) Muslims are shown the distribution of the target area according to the discrimination.


Table 3: between the years 2014 to 2015 by Region of Muslim Discrimination

Area 2014 2015
North Holland Region 13 36
East Holland Region 19 64
Middle Holland Region 19 68
North Holland State 13 38
Amsterdam 24 44
Hague 21 80
Rotterdam 11 46
Zeeland State – West Brabant Area 13 46
East Brabant Area 9 26
Limburg State 0 22
Total 142 466

January and November 2015 (see table 4) are higher rates of Muslim discrimination. January 7, 2015, raid on Charlie Hebdo and Paris November 13 attacks in 2015, is thought to be effective in this increase. In addition to the events recorded on this date in Muslim ‘terrorists’, it was insulted using such expressions.

 

Table 4: Percentage of Muslim Discrimination in 2015

Months 2015
January 76
February 43
March 43
April 35
May 36
June 41
July 27
August 28
September 22
October 36
November 50
December 29
Total 466

 

While police records in the number of insults against Muslims were 115 in 2013, this number increased to 222 in 2015. This is the place where the most experienced city of The Hague. Muslims ‘terrorists’, ‘extremists’ and ‘jihadist’ insulted by such statements. Also for insulting rhetoric in headscarves, it is also included.

According to the report from an ethnic grounds racism, recording a religious background. Racial slurs in the past when referring to a person’s ethnic origin is now getting religious objectives. (For example, “dirty Moroccans” instead of “dirty Muslim”.)

Muslim Discrimination on the Employee Hotline

– According to Muslim discrimination 2015, ADV records complaints rose to 240 over 45 percent increase compared to 2014.

“Meldrum Islamophobia” which is the number of complaints of discrimination complaints line was 158 in 2015.

– SPIOR has recorded 174 complaints about the Muslims discrimination in 2015

– ADV, Meld Islamofobie hotline, and SPIOR; at the time of the terrorist attacks that occurred (January and November 2015) observes an increase in complaints. The growing number of complaints in September, probably because of the refugee crisis.
Between the years 2014-2015 according to MIND and MDI data was an increase in complaints about discrimination against Muslims via the Internet. Because a total of 239 complaints were recorded in MIND and MDI in 2014, this ratio reached 472 in 2015.

– In 2015 SPIOR recorded 174 complaints about Muslim discrimination.

– ADVs, Meld Islamaphobia complaint line, and SPIOR observed more complaints about Muslim discrimination in the terrorist attack dates (2015 January and November).

– Reasons for the Complaints at September is probably refugee crisis.

– According to MIND and MDI’s data complaints about cyberbullying against Muslims increased between 2014 and 2015. In 2014 MIND and MDI recorded total 239 complaints, but in 2015 this number increased to 472.

 

Antisemitism

According to Police records; between 2012 and 2015 for per year average for antisemitic events are 60. 50 percent happened in Amsterdam. But 2014’s ratio disrupts this ratio with 76 events. It may be because of the increased crisis between ISRAEL and Palestine at 2014.

Antisemitic events of 2015’s 30 percent are discrimination, 16 percent are threatening and 12 percent are damaging building and vandalism.

Recorded antisemitic events in 2012 were 931, but it decreased to 424 at 2015.

 

Antisemitism
Once upon a time in Europe, racism and antisemitism

Far Right Unions

– Because of the last years’ terrorist attacks and refugee crisis, Holland’s Anti Islam and refugee unions grew up.

– In 2015 Holland’s known four far-right Unions are Identitair Verzet, Voorpost, Zwart Front and Hollands Volksbelang.

– In the report at the ”Other NeoNazis” category contains as small NeoNazi event groups are De Nederlandse Volks-Unie (NVU) and Blood & Honour.Pegida, Extreemrechtse Muziek, and Demonstranten Tegen Gemeentes (DTG) groups are in the Far Right category.

 

– In 2011 Far Right member’s amount was 90, at 2015 they became 245 people.

– This much of Far Right member last seen at the 90s. Especially in the second half of 2015 Far Right members and their events increased. This situation is about refugee crisis and anti-refugee propagandas.

– Far Right Union members between 2011 and 2015

 

2011 2012 2013 2014 2015
İdentitair verzet —- —- 10 10 20
Voorpost 15 15 15 15 15
Zwart front —– 5 10 5 5
Hollands Volksbelang —- —- —- —- 5
NVU 20 25 20 30 60
Blood & honour netwerk 50 40 45 30 50
others neonazis 5 15 20 10 10
pegida —- —– —– —- 60
DTG —- —– —- —- 20
total 90 100 120 100 245

 

Partij voor de Vrijheid (PVV)

– Holland’s Far Right Party PVV started contacts with other Far Right Organizations outside of Holland. In this context in 2015 Europe Parliment build a fraction. Those parties at the fraction are:

– Partij voor de Vrijheid (Holland ), Front National (France), Freedom Party of Austria (Austria), Lega Nord (Italy), Vlaams Belang (Belgium) and an English deputy that left UKIP.

– Partij voor de Vrijheid’s another abroad event is Pegida shows at Germany. And at Pegida event they read the message of Geert Wilders‘ (Partij voor de Vrijheid’s Leader). After that Wilders went to show in Dresden and he made a speech.

– PVV in domestic just makes anti-refugee propagandas but as known they’re not in contact with another Far Right Union from Holland.  

 

Geert Wilders at meeting
The symbol of racism in the Netherlands, Geert Wilders

Extreme Right Wing – Violence And Demonstrations  

– In 2015 ( Table 6) 37 extreme right-wing violence events happened. 68% of those events (25 events ) happened in in the last period of 2015. Since the October month of 2015, the arrival of refugees in Netherlands seems to be the cause of the rise in extreme right-wing violence events.

– 9 of those 25 events were directed to refugees or refugee shelters.  

– 6 of those events were cited by the Freedom Party using Geert Wilders’ official or discourse. PVV  sympathizers also called for violence and arson in their social media accounts.  

 

Table 6: Extreme Right-Wing Violence Events Between The Years Of 2011 -2015  

2011 2012 2013 2014 2015
Racist wall writings        3         1        6         11      16
Threatening        8         8        5         13        7
Fighting        3         2        4         7        8
Destruction        0         1        1         4        4
Arson        1         0        0         0          

        0

Abuse        3         2        1          7         2
Total        18         13         17         42        37


– The number of “Violent nonviolent extreme right-wing demonstrations “ is 5 at 2012 and it increased to 13 in 2014 and 15 in 2015. In 2015, seven demonstrations were made with at least 50 participations.This rate was 4 in 2014 and 1 in 2013. A number of people between 50 and 200 participated in 4 demonstrations of Pegida. According to this table,  the increase in the number of demonstrators draws attention.

– Extreme right-wing activists for 8 times supported the demonstrations in 2014. This rate was 14 in 2015 . 10 of those happened after October. Demonstrations were for refugees, mosque buildings and for removing the Black Peter.

– Demonstrations that extreme right wing from Netherlands attended :

 

  • In Germany 16 demonstrations, 8 in 2014
  • In Belgium 4 demonstrations in 2015 ( 3 of those are Flemish wing of Pegida )
  • Two each demonstration in  England, Slovakia, and Poland

 

Administrative Prevention  

In 2015 some municipalities in the Netherlands, restricted extreme right-wing activism to prevent social tension.

In Pegida first three demonstrations in the cities of Utrecht and Rotterdam, participants were banned from walking. The demonstrators could only perform on the specific area. But they had the permission of walking in the fourth demonstration of Pegida.  

A demonstration of the RVF  Landstorm Nederland group in Oss was banned.  

Extreme right-wing “ Hooligan “ music group’s concert was canceled.  

Municipalities attempted to remove the meeting places of extreme right wing “Rac’nRoll Place “ in Veendam and “ De Nationalist “ in Ravenstein, but this attempt failed.  

 

Judicial Process About Racist Cases     

– Police kept records for 96 percent ( 3980 cases) of 4165 racist /anti-semitic cases in 2015. ( About 66 percent of cases  were recorded in 2014 ) .Prosecution office instituted an inquiry about 21 percent (847) of the 3980 cases.

– 847 cases examined by the prosecution office. 70 percent ( 590 ) of the case was filed.  In 545 cases which have been brought to justice, announced the court decision.

 

Table 7 : Judicial Process About Racist Cases  2014-2015  

               Month               2014               2015
Total Number Of Events               4092               4165
     Police Report               2676               3980
 Prosecution Investigation                870               847
      Filing a case                545               590
      Court Decision                388               437