On December 2016, Anne Frank Foundation in Amsterdam published its annual report about extreme right-wing violence events with racism, Muslim discrimination, anti-Semitism and extreme right-wing organization. The report that the Anne Frank Foundation is preparing for fifth; it says that discrimination against Muslims has increased in recent years.
Summary Table: Antisemitism, Racism, and Muslim Discrimination
In the Netherlands from 2012-2015, the number of cases of racism recorded by the police in the following table (table 1) is given. In 2012 while passing 2077 racist events records, this number increased to 2732 in 2015. The number of discriminatory events targeting Muslims it has tripled in 2015 compared to 2014.
Table 1: Racism in the Netherlands between 2012 and 2015
|Total number of racist case||4274||4283||4092||4165|
– In 2015, 2732 (including discrimination against Muslim) racist cases were recorded.
– According to police records, 21 percent of cases in 2015 are violence, 14 percent are based on discrimination, and 13 percent are based on threats.
– “Racist action” cases in police records it dropped from 1440 to 842 between the years 2010-2015.
– The table 2 below shows the cases of racism separated by regions.
Table 2: According to the regions where the police are responsible, racist incidents.
|Regions where the police is responsible||2012||2013||2014||2015|
|North Netherlands Region||160||199||207||273|
|Eastern Netherlands Region||290||296||399||397|
|Central Netherlands Region||253||250||336||303|
|North Netherlands Region||144||150||192||197|
|Zeeland State-West Brabant Region||165||147||215||235|
|Eastern Brabant Region||128||141||206||189|
|National Police unit||49||18||–||2|
Complaint Lines Working on Racism
– The report took into account complaints that reached anti-discrimination services (Hol.” ADV”). In 2015, 1965 racism was reported to ADV. (This number does not include discrimination against Muslim because ADV is recording these complaints separately)
– The report also takes into account the data prepared by MIND and MIND, which record racism on the internet. Reaching these institutions complaints; while 753 in 2014, in 2015, it rose to 861.
– Most of the complaints about the racist messages on Facebook social sharing site. In parallel with the debate on the refugee crisis in the Netherlands in 2015, complaints about racist rhetoric on the internet have increased.
About 17 percent of 2015 racist incidents (466) were against Muslims. This rate was approximately 5 percent in 2014, while 2013 was about 2.
The number of cases of discrimination against Muslims. According to police records 35 in 2013, 142 in 2014 and 466 in 2015. According to these data in 2015 compared to a year earlier discrimination against Muslims has tripled. The probable cause of this increase in 2015 (January and November) the growing influx of refugees with social tensions and terrorist attacks in Europe.
According to the police record of events related to Muslims: 20 percent of discrimination, 16 percent of threatened and 14 percent is made up of violence. (Other events: goods to / etc insulting and damaging the buildings.
When looking at the distribution of the events on the Muslim, The Netherlands is an increase in the general and this increase is observed in all of the Netherlands. The following table (Table 3) Muslims are shown the distribution of the target area according to the discrimination.
Table 3: between the years 2014 to 2015 by Region of Muslim Discrimination
|North Holland Region||13||36|
|East Holland Region||19||64|
|Middle Holland Region||19||68|
|North Holland State||13||38|
|Zeeland State – West Brabant Area||13||46|
|East Brabant Area||9||26|
January and November 2015 (see table 4) are higher rates of Muslim discrimination. January 7, 2015, raid on Charlie Hebdo and Paris November 13 attacks in 2015, is thought to be effective in this increase. In addition to the events recorded on this date in Muslim ‘terrorists’, it was insulted using such expressions.
Table 4: Percentage of Muslim Discrimination in 2015
While police records in the number of insults against Muslims were 115 in 2013, this number increased to 222 in 2015. This is the place where the most experienced city of The Hague. Muslims ‘terrorists’, ‘extremists’ and ‘jihadist’ insulted by such statements. Also for insulting rhetoric in headscarves, it is also included.
According to the report from an ethnic grounds racism, recording a religious background. Racial slurs in the past when referring to a person’s ethnic origin is now getting religious objectives. (For example, “dirty Moroccans” instead of “dirty Muslim”.)
Muslim Discrimination on the Employee Hotline
– According to Muslim discrimination 2015, ADV records complaints rose to 240 over 45 percent increase compared to 2014.
– “Meldrum Islamophobia” which is the number of complaints of discrimination complaints line was 158 in 2015.
– SPIOR has recorded 174 complaints about the Muslims discrimination in 2015
– ADV, Meld Islamofobie hotline, and SPIOR; at the time of the terrorist attacks that occurred (January and November 2015) observes an increase in complaints. The growing number of complaints in September, probably because of the refugee crisis.
–Between the years 2014-2015 according to MIND and MDI data was an increase in complaints about discrimination against Muslims via the Internet. Because a total of 239 complaints were recorded in MIND and MDI in 2014, this ratio reached 472 in 2015.
– In 2015 SPIOR recorded 174 complaints about Muslim discrimination.
– ADVs, Meld Islamaphobia complaint line, and SPIOR observed more complaints about Muslim discrimination in the terrorist attack dates (2015 January and November).
– Reasons for the Complaints at September is probably refugee crisis.
– According to MIND and MDI’s data complaints about cyberbullying against Muslims increased between 2014 and 2015. In 2014 MIND and MDI recorded total 239 complaints, but in 2015 this number increased to 472.
According to Police records; between 2012 and 2015 for per year average for antisemitic events are 60. 50 percent happened in Amsterdam. But 2014’s ratio disrupts this ratio with 76 events. It may be because of the increased crisis between ISRAEL and Palestine at 2014.
Antisemitic events of 2015’s 30 percent are discrimination, 16 percent are threatening and 12 percent are damaging building and vandalism.
Recorded antisemitic events in 2012 were 931, but it decreased to 424 at 2015.
Far Right Unions
– Because of the last years’ terrorist attacks and refugee crisis, Holland’s Anti Islam and refugee unions grew up.
– In 2015 Holland’s known four far-right Unions are Identitair Verzet, Voorpost, Zwart Front and Hollands Volksbelang.
– In the report at the ”Other NeoNazis” category contains as small NeoNazi event groups are De Nederlandse Volks-Unie (NVU) and Blood & Honour.Pegida, Extreemrechtse Muziek, and Demonstranten Tegen Gemeentes (DTG) groups are in the Far Right category.
– In 2011 Far Right member’s amount was 90, at 2015 they became 245 people.
– This much of Far Right member last seen at the 90s. Especially in the second half of 2015 Far Right members and their events increased. This situation is about refugee crisis and anti-refugee propagandas.
– Far Right Union members between 2011 and 2015
|Blood & honour netwerk||50||40||45||30||50|
Partij voor de Vrijheid (PVV)
– Holland’s Far Right Party PVV started contacts with other Far Right Organizations outside of Holland. In this context in 2015 Europe Parliment build a fraction. Those parties at the fraction are:
– Partij voor de Vrijheid (Holland ), Front National (France), Freedom Party of Austria (Austria), Lega Nord (Italy), Vlaams Belang (Belgium) and an English deputy that left UKIP.
– Partij voor de Vrijheid’s another abroad event is Pegida shows at Germany. And at Pegida event they read the message of Geert Wilders‘ (Partij voor de Vrijheid’s Leader). After that Wilders went to show in Dresden and he made a speech.
– PVV in domestic just makes anti-refugee propagandas but as known they’re not in contact with another Far Right Union from Holland.
Extreme Right Wing – Violence And Demonstrations
– In 2015 ( Table 6) 37 extreme right-wing violence events happened. 68% of those events (25 events ) happened in in the last period of 2015. Since the October month of 2015, the arrival of refugees in Netherlands seems to be the cause of the rise in extreme right-wing violence events.
– 9 of those 25 events were directed to refugees or refugee shelters.
– 6 of those events were cited by the Freedom Party using Geert Wilders’ official or discourse. PVV sympathizers also called for violence and arson in their social media accounts.
Table 6: Extreme Right-Wing Violence Events Between The Years Of 2011 -2015
|Racist wall writings||3||1||6||11||16|
– The number of “Violent nonviolent extreme right-wing demonstrations “ is 5 at 2012 and it increased to 13 in 2014 and 15 in 2015. In 2015, seven demonstrations were made with at least 50 participations.This rate was 4 in 2014 and 1 in 2013. A number of people between 50 and 200 participated in 4 demonstrations of Pegida. According to this table, the increase in the number of demonstrators draws attention.
– Extreme right-wing activists for 8 times supported the demonstrations in 2014. This rate was 14 in 2015 . 10 of those happened after October. Demonstrations were for refugees, mosque buildings and for removing the Black Peter.
– Demonstrations that extreme right wing from Netherlands attended :
- In Germany 16 demonstrations, 8 in 2014
- In Belgium 4 demonstrations in 2015 ( 3 of those are Flemish wing of Pegida )
- Two each demonstration in England, Slovakia, and Poland
In 2015 some municipalities in the Netherlands, restricted extreme right-wing activism to prevent social tension.
In Pegida first three demonstrations in the cities of Utrecht and Rotterdam, participants were banned from walking. The demonstrators could only perform on the specific area. But they had the permission of walking in the fourth demonstration of Pegida.
A demonstration of the RVF Landstorm Nederland group in Oss was banned.
Extreme right-wing “ Hooligan “ music group’s concert was canceled.
Municipalities attempted to remove the meeting places of extreme right wing “Rac’nRoll Place “ in Veendam and “ De Nationalist “ in Ravenstein, but this attempt failed.
Judicial Process About Racist Cases
– Police kept records for 96 percent ( 3980 cases) of 4165 racist /anti-semitic cases in 2015. ( About 66 percent of cases were recorded in 2014 ) .Prosecution office instituted an inquiry about 21 percent (847) of the 3980 cases.
– 847 cases examined by the prosecution office. 70 percent ( 590 ) of the case was filed. In 545 cases which have been brought to justice, announced the court decision.
Table 7 : Judicial Process About Racist Cases 2014-2015
|Total Number Of Events||4092||4165|
|Filing a case||545||590|